The tubule reabsorption occurs mostly liquids and substances, which still needs the body.Allergic nephritis kidney disease - a common problem these days.Under normal conditions a day is formed by filtering 180 l of primary urine, but receives only 1.5 liters.Jade is found in the following diseases:
- Glomerulonephritis.It is characterized by inflammation of the glomeruli, thereby reducing the filtration efficiency.A delay slag in the body and enter red blood cells and proteins in the urine.In severe cases, a decrease in urine output, which can take on a dark brown or red.Lower extremity edema occur, lower back, eye, increasing blood pressure.Severe glomerulonephritis can be accompanied by lethargy, nausea and vomiting, due to the delay of nitrogenous wastes in the blood (uremia).
- nephrotic syndrome.Urine contains large amounts of protein, thereby developing the massive swelling (edema)."'Pyelonephritis. The defeat of one or both kidneys bacterial infection. Low back pain is accompanied by fever and sh
- renal failure. Renal failure at an early stage is often asymptomatic. At a later stage, manifested malaise, loss of appetite, frequent urination, itching, nausea, vomiting, tingling fingers, breathing problems, lethargy and coma. In severe cases, the kidneys may stop producingurine.
- Acute glomerulonephritis has many possible causes. In most cases, it is due to abnormal development of an autoimmune reaction, which is accompanied by damage to the glomeruli. For some types of jade hitting antigen is unknown. Known antigens include bacteria, parasites and viruses.
- bacteria.A common cause of glomerulonephritis, especially in children, is an infection with beta-hemolytic streptococcus group A. This microorganism is the causative agent of tonsillitis, middle ear infection or cellulitis (skin infection).After one of these diseases may develop glomerulonephritis.Bacteria such as salmonella, staphylococcus or gonococcus may also cause kidney damage.
- parasites.Jade can cause parasites such as malaria parasites (Plasmodium malaria), blood flukes (fluke) - schistosomes and filaria.
- viruses.Viral infections, including mumps, measles, chickenpox, infectious mononucleosis, coxsackie virus, hepatitis A and B, HIV, can also be the cause of jade.
In addition, due to the difficulty of removing urine enlarged prostate, uterus or ureteral valve (in children) is a predisposing factor for urinary tract infection, which is associated with the development of acute pyelonephritis.Diseases accompanied by an abnormal immune response (autoimmune disease), which include systemic lupus erythematosus, periarteritis nodosa, can also cause nephritis.In systemic lupus erythematosus, kidney glomeruli are damaged, both adults and children.Periarteritis nodosa (a disease of the arterial walls) often affects men middle-aged and elderly.Renal biopsy may reveal damage to the walls of blood vessels of medium size.As with other diseases of the kidneys, for an accurate diagnosis is necessary to conduct a detailed examination.The study of renal function include:
- urine analysis - determination of protein content, erythrocytes and cylinders (microscopic mass of dead cells and fat);
- measurement volume of urine;
- blood tests - to determine the level of protein and nitrogenous wastes such as urea and creatinine;
- swabs from the throat, ear and skin for detection of bacterial infections;
- chest x-ray - to determine the presence of fluid in the lungs and an enlarged heart due to excess fluid;
- visualization of kidneys by radiography and CT scan - conducted in women with recurrent urinary tract infections;men and children is assigned a single case of the disease after the infection;
- kidney biopsy - using a puncture needle to the study takes a small sample of kidney tissue.The resulting material was examined under an electron microscope;
- cystography during urination - visualization technique that allows you to determine the effectiveness of bladder emptying.
necessary to conduct a thorough examination of the patient suffering from acute nephritis, during which will be fixed daily amount of alcohol consumed and discharged liquid.You should regularly measure blood pressure.In the case of high blood pressure should be the appointment of appropriate drugs.For the treatment of infections using antibiotics.An important role is played by diet low in salt.In critically ill patients need to limit consumption of protein.In some cases, you need to corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide (cytostatic drugs).Patients suffering from renal failure, which is associated with glomerulonephritis, can be administered hemodialysis.Patients with nephrotic syndrome recommend a diet low in salt.Some of them are appointed by corticosteroid therapy in high doses, which helps prevent the entry of protein into the urine.To increase the amount of urine used diuretics.They are appointed with massive edema.Patients with acute pyelonephritis require antibiotic treatment.Early treatment of infections mochevyuodyaschih tract in children is important to prevent hypertension and kidney failure in the future.Surgery aimed at restoring passage of urine, can prevent the development of chronic pyelonephritis.
- Glomerulonephritis for an unknown reason.Unfavorable prognosis of this disease, so the need for careful follow-up.Some patients for weeks or months developing renal failure.
- nephrotic syndrome.Children recover well in the appointment of corticosteroid therapy.The results of treatment in adults is worse.
- Acute pyelonephritis.Patients usually respond well to antibiotics.You may need to conduct surgery to restore normal passage of urine or correction of vesicoureteral reflex.
- Chronic pyelonephritis.Is the treatment of hypertension and renal failure.The cause of acute renal failure in 10-15% of cases is glomerulonephritis.Every year thousands of people worldwide are treated with hemodialysis or kidney transplantation is transferred because of renal failure.Most of them are patients with glomerulonephritis.The most common kidney disease is currently pyelonephritis.
- Alport syndrome - a genetic abnormality that affects about 1 person in 5000. Some facts about the disease: The disease usually affects men more than women;characterized by the development of progressive renal failure and deafness;mainly affected glomeruli of the kidneys;often the first sign of the disease is the presence of blood in urine.