main endocrine glands are:
- hypothalamus (in the brain);
- the pituitary gland (in the brain);
- thyroid (in front of the neck);
- pancreas (abdominal cavity);
- adrenal glands (on the upper pole of the kidneys);
- ovaries and testes.Thanks to the coordinated work of the endocrine and nervous systems is carried out to maintain vital body functions.
regulation of hormone levels in the body based on the principle of feedback.In response to a decrease in the level of any of the hormones are activated gland responsible for its production.Conversely, when the level of the hormone increases cancer activity is reduced.Excessively high or low hormone levels can be harmful to the body.Any hormonal imbalance may lead to various pathological conditions of sterility to obesity.Some disorders of the endocrine system is quite difficult to diagnose, so patients with suspected hormonal imbalance are sent to the doctor-endocrinologist for a thorough examination.To identify the exact cause of vi
There are two main types of endocrine disorders:
• violation of the hormone;
• inability to target organs react to the appropriate hormone.
Among the most frequent endocrine diseases can be called:
• diabetes - associated with insufficient production of insulin or the insensitivity to his tissues;
• diabetes insipidus - develops when there is insufficient production of the hormone vasopressin;
• hypothyroidism - is characterized by a deficiency of thyroid hormones;adults manifested lethargy and weight gain;
• hyperthyroidism - is associated with excessive production of thyroid hormones;Symptoms include heart palpitations and tremor (trembling);
• Cushing's syndrome - develops an excess of glucocorticoids (adrenal hormones);Symptoms include obesity and high blood pressure;
• acromegaly and gigantism - observed mainly in the pituitary tumor.
Hyperactivity (increased activity of the gland) can be observed in the glandular tissue of the tumor, which is accompanied by violation of the principle of feedback.In some autoimmune diseases occur to produce antibodies that affect the prostate, which is manifested by increased secretion of hormones.Similar effects may result, and infection of the prostate gland.Similarly diagnosing endocrine pathology, except diabetes, it may be difficult.Many of them are characterized by slow development and delayed expression of specific symptoms.
endocrinologist, examining a patient in order to identify potential endocrine disruption.Diabetes mellitus is characterized by insufficient production of insulin, which causes excess glucose in the blood, which is released by the kidneys.Urinalysis helps identify it.The nature of endocrine disorders studied by a blood test.In this case, the blood can be detected from the normal level different hormones or other substances.Then, hosts a variety of additional studies:
• blood test - to identify changes in the level of hormones or other substances in the blood.In some cases, tests are carried out on the stimulation or inhibition of hormone production;
• urinalysis - concentration output of hormones from the body can be measured;it is also used to identify violations of hormone;
• genetic analysis - the identification of DNA mutations, which can cause endocrine disorders, can also be used for diagnosis;
• imaging techniques - conducted studies, allowing to create the image of the prostate;Computed tomography is particularly informative for the diagnosis of tumors, which may cause disorders of hormonal balance;
• radionuclide methods - Image gland can be obtained by introducing a tracer isotope, which allows to evaluate its function.After identifying the causes of the violations endocrinologist appoints optimal treatment.In some cases, you may need surgery to remove the affected gland, but often require long-term drug therapy.Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common metabolic disorders and is characterized by an unquenchable thirst and polyuria (increased volume of urine).The thyroid gland is responsible for the secretion of thyroid hormones, which play an important role in the regulation of metabolism.Impaired function of this gland is accompanied by metabolic disorders.The pituitary gland is located at the base of the brain.It secretes a number of hormones and regulates the production of hormones by other glands.Impaired function of the pituitary gland is accompanied by significant changes in the balance of hormones that can have long-term consequences.The adrenal glands are located on the upper pole of the kidneys and are responsible for the secretion of several hormones.Change their level in the blood can lead to conditions such as Addison's disease or Cushing's syndrome.