course, today without a full balanced diet can not imagine what is called a healthy lifestyle.Attempts to formulate general rules for healthy menus were made long before the so-called pyramid, but in a single system they have failed to keep.Only in the early 90-ies of XX century American nutritionists have offered their vision of a rational and nutritious diet every day.It was a pyramid, divided into several levels, each of which was occupied by any kind of products.Accordingly, it was the lower segment of the widest, and the subsequent gradually becomes narrower, thereby clearly showing how a product should be in human nutrition from the point of view of nutrition.
It is out of date?
The original pyramid, which some mistakenly try to use now, the largest segment was occupied by a variety of cereal products such as cereals, bread and bakery products, pasta.It was believed that grain products contain a lot of complex carbohydrates, which are needed by the body for physical activity and therefore sho
the next, smaller level there are a variety of meat and cheese (it contains not less than complete proteins than meat).
placed even higher milk and dairy products, they are certainly useful, but not form the basis of nutrition.Even less space got fat-containing products of vegetable and animal oils, nuts, etc., and completed pyramid "segment" with sweets. This is due to the fact that fats (especially unsaturated fatty kitty lots) our body are necessary, even in smallthe amount, but no sugary foods is possible to do. Lack of "sweet" the top will not violate the integrity of the whole pyramid, but it will help to avoid an overabundance of digestible carbohydrates.
originally classical pyramid of proper nutrition and healthy lifestyles approved doctors and patients, it is considered the most efficient model in the preparation of the menu.But, like many theoretical models, the pyramid could not stand the collision with reality.A few years after the mass distribution of a pyramid, American scientists conducted a study which showed a very poor picture: patients, to use the rules of the pyramid, massively obese!
Among the main reasons of proper nutrition and a healthy lifestyle, we must first distinguish the inability to use a universal power supply circuit for the people of different age, physique and daily activity - because our needs are very individual.And, in addition, a healthy diet is meaningless in isolation from the rest of the way of life, and the pyramid is actually concerned only the list of foods consumed.In addition, from the list of products of the people tend to chose the most familiar and, in their view, delicious.For example, cereal-based food accounted for the majority of high-calorie white bread and various cereals noodles, while recommended by nutritionists cereal products (bread and cereals of coarse grains) almost was not.
nutritionists had to conduct additional research and create a new model of a pyramid with the same mistakes.The major difference in modern pyramid is its variability and adaptability to the individual needs of each person.The structure of the pyramid is also significantly changed: instead of individual horizontal floors product groups are represented in the form of strip-sectors (such as vertical rainbow) wide at the base and gradually tapering to the top.The width of the whole pyramid shows the extent to which an active lifestyle is a man, his energy, and the daily needs of the different groups of products.
For sedentary person spends very little calories, and according to the principles of healthy nutrition should reduce the amount of food consumed and the caloric content of their diet, and some of the "strip" has practically excluded from its power - for example, those that are reserved for sweet or fatty foods. Of courseNo one says that you have to give up once and for all of them (as it was supposed rules of the "old" pyramid), but inactivity imposes very severe restrictions on the "sweet" and fat. Those who want to indulge yourself often delicious, it is recommended to raise the leveltheir physical activity, it will greatly expand the capabilities of your diet.
Another innovation pyramid - "jaggies", which is that the person needs to make all the changes at once, in one day, but gradually.This kind of schematic recommendation, which sets the overall direction and allows each of us to "build his pyramid," calculate your own diet based on age, lifestyle and everything else. Even people with severe chronic disease can build their "pyramid", taking advantage of the generalscheme and medical recommendations.
kids too are no exception - a modern pyramid is quite applicable and in baby food, only when it is necessary to consider the preparation of age the body's need for nutrients and do not forget to regularly update the menu with the growth and development of the baby.Of course, in the first year of life of any diet and speech can not go.The only healthy food, children under one year - a breastfeeding (or adapted milk mixture) and gradually introducing foods dishes.Only with time, starting at 2 years old, the child's diet gradually approaching the "adult" and his digestive system is able to digest new foods.
characteristic feature of children's pyramid in the first 3 years of life - the predominance of dairy in the dietproducts. They will be presented in the pyramid of the broad band. On the day of the 3-year old child needs about 400-600 grams of various fermented foods, with age, their number will vary. Dairy products are not only a valuable building material, readily available source of protein, fat and carbohydratesbut also supply the body with calcium salts and vitamins, especially vitamin B, which are indispensable for the normal development of organs and systems. That is why in the old pyramid scheme, milk and dairy products are the foundation of children's food, and the new - they are portrayed in the form of the first and mostwide strips.
After 1.5 years in a child's diet is recommended to enter various types of cheese, cream, sour cream and yogurt.Milk should be used with some caution since it can reduce appetite and induce flatulence.If the cooked cereal baby milk, cereals originally tenderize it in water, and milk was added at the end of cooking and allowed to boil once.Fatty dairy products (cream, sour cream and cheese) it is desirable to give the child every day or added to cooked dishes in small quantities.
closer to 1.5 years in baby food need to increase the amount of meat dishes.Parents, passionate vegetarianism, it should be remembered that the abundance of plant proteins can not replace a child eating meat, and transfer the baby to the plant-based diet in any case impossible.Of course, the kid is suitable not any meat, even the most recent.Loved by many of us pork and duck and goose meat is too rich in fat, which will not benefit the child and become completely unnecessary load on the digestive system.Much more useful to offer the consumer a little steam cutlets from lean beef or veal, boiled chicken (white meat is better), or turkey.Up to 3 years retained the ban on roasts, cutlets, meatballs and everything else you need to cook for a couple.Not more than once a week, you can offer your child a little piece of fried boiled chicken or meatball.It is believed that the 3rd year baby already can sometimes be pampered Meats, but only those which are intended for children's food.Smoked sausages, shpikachki, as well as ham, bacon, bacon and other meat delicacies are not intended for small children and should be completely eliminated from their diet.
Fish in children's pyramid is designated a separate strip, albeit narrower than the meat, but no less important.
Different types of fish contain not only the child's body full of digestible protein, but also rich in essential trace elements and vitamins.Particularly useful are considered lean fish - pike, perch, cod, hake, etc.However, overload the child's body protein products do not need, you should carefully monitor the amount of meat and fish in the daily menu of the child, the total number of protein foods should not exceed the age limit.Recommended alternate fish and meat, arranging child traditional fish days.Then, 4 or 5 days a week, you can feed your baby meat products, and 2-3 days - fish.
Fruits and Vegetables
very broad band, comparable only with breast, presented in the pyramid of vegetables and fruits:
- aged between a year and a half - 200-250 grams of vegetables and 100 grams of fruit;
- up to three years - 350 grams of vegetables and 130-200 grams of fruit.
In addition, the need to mention the vegetable and fruit juices, the best - svezheotzhatyh, most beneficial to the child's body:
- at a young age should be about 80-100 ml of juice;
- aged up to three years - 100-150 ml.
As for food allergic children, in this case fruit and vegetables outside the periods of exacerbation is very widely used, with the exception of food allergens.
Bread and cereals
Different types of cereals, which served as the basis of the original pyramid healthy diet, a new children's version has a somewhat smaller value.They still need to be present in the daily menu of the child and provide him plant fiber, carbohydrates and proteins, but the basis of supply is not considered.Parents should not forget that the "grain" strip in the diet of a baby should be submitted buns, biscuits and white bread and cereals (primarily - from buckwheat and oats) and bread from a rich fiber meal. Bread child is givenIn addition to main dishes - meat, soups or puree, and - from 2 years - the power required entry black bread - it is particularly rich in fiber and B vitamins
And if in the first year of life the baby receive mainly liquid porridge,in older age can translate it to whole grain food: sometimes offer crumbs millet or barley porridge, and familiarity with the gruel is better to postpone to a later date. Precautions should be taken to beans, peas and lentils: they are very difficult to digest andoften provoke an allergic reaction. Therefore, they must be used in the form of finely ground mash, which in small amounts can be added to a vegetable soup or mixed with other vegetables.Periodically, vegetables or mashed potatoes can be substituted pasta from durum wheat.
fats and oils
Among the most narrow, but important bands in the pyramid of baby food include various oils - both plant and animal.Vegetable oils (olive and sunflower), it is desirable to use in its natural form, without heat treatment - as salad dressings, cereals, puree.It is the source of unsaturated fatty acids and vitamins that are under the influence of heat are rapidly destroyed.Close to three years "strip" a little fat expands and the baby can receive more of butter and vegetable oil.
Another feature of children's pyramid - a selection of eggs in a separate strip of no less narrow than the band of fat. After a year of the child (no allergies) allow not only the egg yolks, and a steam omelet whole egg, and after 1.5 years - or a hard-boiled "in the bag" eggs.On the day of the baby can be given no more than one egg halves.This will enrich his food easily digestible protein, trace elements and fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E. There will also be superfluous to add pureed boiled egg in a vegetable soup or soup.
Raw eggs can not give a child, because it is possible to overload the digestive system, and there is a risk to bring an infection.
Now let's talk about the sweet part of the pyramid.I must say that if before the "sweet tip" was considered quite unnecessary in the diet of the child, but now a different kind of sweets considered a full part of everyday baby food. Foods rich in carbohydrates bystrousvaivaemymi (not only and not so much sugar as such!), Must be present inbaby diet. They are well supported by the overall energy balance and quickly replenish the body's energy loss. Of course, parents should be careful when choosing sweet dishes for the children's menu. For chocolate to 2-3 years is not generally recommended to offer the child (even milk), honey is contraindicatedAvailable, but the biscuits, marmalade, dried apricots, with raisins, homemade jams and some other sweets may well be used. But the overall width of the "sweet" with stripes on our pyramid is (in terms of pure sugar) 35-40 g for babies upone and a half years, and 40-50 g - for children up to three years.