Tests to establish paternity

Analysis signs of blood groups

blood group (A, B, AB or O) and Rhesus factor inherited from the strict observance of the laws.Therefore, in some cases the biological paternity can be eliminated even on the basis of the results of a blood test.In addition, measured not only blood type and Rh factor, but other properties specific to a particular blood group.

Finally, the study of red blood cells, enzymes and many proteins circulating in the blood plasma, also occurs in compliance with some laws.When paternity is a
lso investigated DNA individual differences.Are becoming increasingly important and properties of white blood cells, is inherited.Barrel that on the surface of leukocytes can not establish the presence of certain antigens that are important for the human immune system.
comparing leukocyte antigens mother and father, you can identify existing compliance.This method is much more difficult to study.It allows you to get more accurate information than the study of blood groups.When paternity is also produced a comparison of the chromosomes of patients (using a standard called allelic ladders).In this case, accurate information provides the genetic code of chromosomes.

Defining moment pregnancy

Further information can be obtained by determining the time of pregnancy.In this case, the estimate duration of pregnancy and fetal development stage try as closely as possible to set the date of conception.So get an additional (but not always reliable) criterion.

ability to fertilize

course, you must take into account the ability of male fertility.Reliable methods of establishing paternity and the use of these methods allows almost certainly rule out the possibility of paternity.However, in the case of a positive result of the analysis in response to the request indicates that there is a probability of paternity.Thus on the basis of statistical methods, the probability of paternity.Recently, this probability can be calculated so precisely that the paternity men prove practicable.

Anthropological examination of heredity
today in establishing paternity, this method of research has lost its relevance and is used very rarely.The principle of this method - a comparison of the external data, such as eyes, hair color, face shape.

analysis of inheritance of blood groups ABO

Blood group (A, B, AB or O) is inherited by strict rules.There are five combinations of blood groups of the mother's father, under which the child is not possible to assert that this man is not the father.Then there is a need for other methods of establishing paternity.
Blood tests:
first - Blood grouping
second - inherited plasma proteins
third - Bequest enzyme system
fourth - leukocyte antigen
Fifth - the time of pregnancy, bio-statistical probability calculationpaternity, anthropological assessment of inherited traits, the ability to fertilize.