At the beginning of the XX century every morning housewives (or cook) began with a hike to the market for fresh produce.They had just cook and eat in the day, well, in extreme cases - tomorrow.True, there were glaciers and cellars.
When it is people who guessed that the cold helps keep food fresh, nobody knows.Obviously, the first cellars were used instead of the cool caves, and in the cold latitudes - the natural reserves of ice.In ancient China, Greece and Rome, people guessed dig holes and fill them with ice, extracted in the mountains.Of course, these glaciers were only in wealthy families.In India, instead of ice evaporation method was used: a wet cloth wrapped vessels, the moisture evaporates and cools the contents.Incidentally, the principle of evaporation (only, not water but other liquids such as ether or Freon) modern refrigerator based device.
In the Middle Ages the use of ice have forgotten, but began to develop alchemy, a byproduct of which was a lot of useful discove
In the XIII century by a nitrate cooled drinks and popsicles made (which, like everything new, was only a memory of the well-forgotten old - in ancient Rome the patricians enjoyed the frozen fruit juice).V1748, William Cullen, professor of medicine at the University of Glasgow, invented the technology of artificial cooling cyclic ether: in one chamber was evacuated, where the air was boiling and steaming, cooling chamber, then the pair fell into another chamber, where they condense and release heat inspace, and from there back into the first chamber.It is a vicious cycle - on the same principle is now based operation of any refrigerator.
Ledkov But who?
first home "fridge" or refrigerator, appeared in the US at the beginning of the XIX century and was arranged very unpretentious.Thomas Moore, an engineer and part-time seller butter, come up with a way to transport oil from Maryland to Washington - in boxes of three-layer walls: steel sheets, rabbit skins and wood.Inside two compartments: for butter and ice.Moore patented inventions, he came up with the name, and by the middle of the XIX century slightly improved "refrigerators" (instead of rabbit skins - sawdust, paper, cork) appeared in the US and European economies.Soon, the United States remained almost no large reservoir from which to winter does not shooting "harvest".In the summer of sellers ice store it in the cellars, and hawkers selling ice - "Iceman".Production of ice grew rapidly, with major part controlled Russian immigrants from Alaska.For three years in the market of the Russian-American company earned more than gold, for which production was founded.
In 1844 American physician John Gori created a setting based on the opening of Cullen and work on the air.It produces an artificial ice for the hospital in Florida, and also supplied to the chamber cool air - in fact, it was the first air conditioning.Around the same time, the US and Europe swept typhus epidemic provoked by the use of contaminated water from the ice.By the time the industry thoroughly dirtied the river, so the question of the purity of the ice became urgent.And in the New and Old World, one after another inventor created a more or less successful models of compression machines to make artificial ice.As a refrigerant used therein ester, ammonia or sulfur dioxide.You can imagine the stench spread around such refrigerators.Nevertheless, unwieldy machines noisy well accustomed in the brewing industry and factories for the production of ice.But what to choose for home refrigerators - the decision of each individual.
Freon and Greenpeace
In 1910, General Electric produced the first domestic refrigeration unit - a mechanical attachment to the "ice-box", which is preparing the ice.It cost $ 1,000, twice as expensive than the car "Ford".The motor in the set-top box was so big that it is usually located in the basement and was connected with the "ice-box" drive system.Only in 1927, General Electric designers headed by Danish engineer Christian Stinstrupom created a real refrigerator, all parts of which fit in a small closet, and even provided him with a thermostat, which with small changes is still used.Soon, American chemist Thomas Meade Gley proposed to replace the recently synthesized ammonia gas freon, which on evaporation absorbs more heat and thus was completely harmless to humans.At the presentation of Freon Mid Gley demonstrated this very impressive way: inhaled Freon pair and exhalation put out a candle.The fact that Freon destroys the ozone layer of the earth, no one knew before the beginning of the 70s, when the "Greenpeace" held mass demonstrations and, in the end, forced manufacturers to abandon in favor of safer Freon gases.
In 1933, the United States has almost 6 million housewives proudly fetched food from home, "refrigerator» General Motors.In England, there were only 100 thousand refrigerators in Germany - 30 thousand, in the Soviet Union of such curiosities can be read only in the book ("He showed electrical cabinet cooler, which not only does not require ice, but on the contrary, prepared it in a neattransparent white cubes in a special bath, similar to a photographic. The cabinet had compartments for meat, milk, fish, eggs and vegetables. "Ilf and Petrov," one-storey America ", 1937).
Of course, the Soviet Union also worked on the creation of the unit in order to facilitate the life of working people.Since 1933, the plant produced MOSH-trust refrigerators, which had to be refilled with dry ice.They cost dearly, often broke, so the people's commissar of food industry, Anastas Mikoyan designers regularly arranged reprimands.The only place in the capital operate smoothly refrigerators, was the famous "cocktail lounge" on Gorky Street, where the ice cream made on the American equipment.
By 1939 th managed to either buy, or steal in the West drawings of the new device (does not work on freon, and sulfur dioxide) and start producing household refrigerators HTZ-120 at the Kharkov Tractor Plant.But the war, and was never before.Cult Soviet Freon refrigerator "ZIL" was put into production in March 1951.In the same year began to produce "Saratov".But really refrigerators became available only in the 60s.They were reliable, but inferior to the West in the functionality and convenience.In particular, the freezer was located right in the belly of the refrigerator.Remember: aluminum door, the eternal frost drifts inside?It remembers everyone who has ever wondered how to choose a refrigerator for the home.In the US in 1939 it is still the same General Electric has released a two-door refrigerator, and first 50 technology was developed No frost, eliminates the need for regular defrosting.
Since then, improving the refrigerator is on the way of beauty, comfort and maximum functionality.For example, Samsung Electronics recently introduced a new series of Smart Touch - with external illumination (this is especially handy if otorveshsya night from the computer to fill your exhausted body creative process with something nutritious. LED lighting - both external and internal - allows you to seeall that is needed, not including the kitchen light).Designers seem to have thought through every conceivable feature built-in handle refrigerator compartment is designed on the principle of the automobile - it is easy to open, even holding heavy bags of groceries.Foldable shelf, fixed in three different positions, allows you to put the camera a big cake or other large meal.On the lower level there is a special door shelf for baby products - kids will enjoy, yourself reaching for your morning juice and cheese.
seems that the main objective of the current manufacturers of refrigerators - to deliver customers enjoy, including aesthetic.Smart Touch handsome as a god: soft blue light emphasizes the luxury of black glass surface (more practical, but no less elegant version - "stainless steel").If your husband is enough arguments to make a choice, it has to convince such, for example, detail: the back wall of the refrigerator completely flat - it makes it easier to install, and in addition, the dust does not accumulate, and then (that her husband will surely knows)the engine does not overheat.
Two models - RL55VTEMR and RL55VTEBG - equipped with touch screen, which allows you to control all functions of the unit at the touch.More on this screen, you can write notes to her husband, "Honey, do not forget, we have a guest today.If you still forget, and their appearance will be a surprise for you, you can use the department Cool Select Zone - there is cools champagne six times faster than our old refrigerator! »
While manufacturers take care of us, we, the users, too fewWhat are doing to improve their refrigerators.For example, 22-year-old John Cornwell, has attached to the refrigerator catapult that hurls owner cans of beer, so he could not get up from the couch.The most difficult thing - to learn in time to catch the banks, but the inventor says that this business skill.